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License

The verb license or grant license means to give permission. The noun license or licence (British English, Indian English, Canadian English, Australian English, New Zealand English South African English) refers to that permission as well as to the document recording that permission. A license may be granted by a party (“licensor”) to another party (“licensee”) … Continued

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Structure

Structure is a fundamental, tangible or intangible notion referring to the recognition, observation, nature, and permanence of patterns and relationships of entities. This notion may itself be an object, such as a built structure, or an attribute, such as the structure of society.

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Light

Visible light (commonly referred to simply as light) is electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the human eye, and is responsible for the sense of sight. Visible light has a wavelength in the range of about 380 nanometres to about 740 nm – between the invisible infrared, with longer wavelengths and the invisible ultraviolet, with shorter … Continued

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Light fixture

A light fixture (US English), light fitting (UK English), or luminaire is an electrical device used to create artificial light by use of an electric lamp. All light fixtures have a fixture body and a light socket to hold the lamp and allow for its replacement. Fixtures may also have a switch to control the … Continued

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Lighting

Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect. Lighting includes the use of both artificial light sources like lamps and light fixtures, as well as natural illumination by capturing daylight. Daylighting (using windows, skylights, or light shelves) is sometimes used as the main source of light during … Continued

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Lamp (electrical component)

A lamp is a replaceable component such as an incandescent light bulb, which is designed to produce light from electricity. These components usually have a base of ceramic, metal, glass or plastic, which makes an electrical connection in the socket of a light fixture. This connection may be made with a screw-thread base, two metal … Continued

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Illuminance

In photometry, illuminance is the total luminous flux incident on a surface, per unit area. It is a measure of how much the incident light illuminates the surface, wavelength-weighted by the luminosity function to correlate with human brightness perception. Similarly, luminous emittance is the luminous flux per unit area emitted from a surface. Luminous emittance … Continued

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Sunlight

Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, particularly infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light. On Earth, sunlight is filtered through the Earth’s atmosphere, and is obvious as daylight when the Sun is above the horizon. When the direct solar radiation is not blocked by clouds, it is experienced as sunshine, … Continued

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Skill

A skill is the learned capacity or ability to carry out pre-determined results often with the minimum outlay of time, energy, or both. In other words the abilities that one possesses. Skills can often be divided into domain-general and domain-specific skills. For example, in the domain of work, some general skills would include time management, … Continued

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Construction worker

Construction worker 230pxA carpenter, working on the construction of Douglas Dam in the United States, uses his leg for leverage while boring a hole with a hand drill. (June 1942)OccupationActivity sectors ConstructionDescription A construction worker or builder is a professional, tradesman, or labourer who directly participates in the physical construction of the built environment and … Continued

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Flashing (weatherproofing)

Flashing refers to thin continuous pieces of sheet metal or other impervious material installed to prevent the passage of water into a structure from an angle or joint. Flashing generally operates on the principle that, for water to penetrate a joint, it must work itself upward against the force of gravity or in the case … Continued

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Thermal insulation

Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer (the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence. Thermal insulation can be achieved with specially engineered methods or processes, as well as with suitable object shapes and materials. Heat flow is an inevitable consequence … Continued

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Sensitivity and specificity

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as classification function. Sensitivity (also called the true positive rate, or the recall rate in some fields) measures the proportion of actual positives which are correctly identified as such (e.g. the percentage of sick people who are … Continued

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Shower

A shower (or shower-bath, walk-in shower, steam shower) is a place in which a person bathes under a spray of water. A shower uses less water than a bath: 80 litres on average for a shower compared to 150 litres for a bath.

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Door

A door is a movable structure which is used to open and close an entrance, typically consisting of a panel that swings on hinges or that slides or spins inside a space. When open, doors admit people, animals, ventilation, and light. The door is used to control the physical atmosphere within a space by enclosing … Continued

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Sink

A sink (also sinker, hand basin and wash basin) is a bowl-shaped plumbing fixture used for washing hands, for dishwashing or other purposes. Sinks generally have taps (faucets) that supply hot and cold water and may include a spray feature to be used for faster rinsing. They also include a drain to remove used water; … Continued

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Lever

A lever is a machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fixed hinge, or fulcrum. It is one of the six simple machines identified by Renaissance scientists. The word comes from the French lever, “to raise”, cf. a levant. A lever amplifies an input force to provide a greater output force, … Continued

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Water well

A water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring, or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers. The well water is drawn by a pump, or using containers, such as buckets, that are raised mechanically or by hand. Wells can vary greatly in depth, water volume, and water … Continued

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Height

Height is the measurement of vertical distance, but has two meanings in common use. It can either indicate how “tall” something is, or how “high up” it is. For example “The height of the building is 50 m” or “The height of the airplane is 10,000 m”. When used to describe how high something like an airplane … Continued

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Accessibility

Accessibility is the degree to which a product, device, service, or environment is available to as many people as possible. Accessibility can be viewed as the “ability to access” and benefit from some system or entity. The concept often focuses on people with disabilities or special needs (such as the Convention on the Rights of … Continued

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Knowledge

Knowledge is a familiarity with someone or something, which can include facts, information, descriptions, or skills acquired through experience or education. It can refer to the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a subject); it can … Continued

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Construction

In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking. Normally, the job is managed by a project manager, and supervised by a construction manager, design engineer, construction engineer … Continued

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Use (law)

Use, as a term in real property law of common law countries, amounts to a recognition of the duty of a person, to whom property has been conveyed for certain purposes, to carry out those purposes. Uses were equitable or beneficial interests in land. In early law a man could not dispose of his estate … Continued

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Waterproofing

Waterproof or water-resistant describes objects relatively unaffected by water or resisting the ingress of water under specified conditions. Such items may be used in wet environments or under water to specified depths. Waterproofing describes making an object waterproof or water-resistant. “Water resistant” and “waterproof” often refer to penetration of liquid water. Permeation of water vapor … Continued